I liked this view of the Temple of Jupiter in Pompeii with its stair-step columns. A massive earthquake had destroyed the temple in 62 AD. It was still being rebuilt in 79 AD when it was covered by volcanic rock from Mt. Vesuvius.
It is impossible to visit the ancient cities of the Mediterranean without thinking about the importance of the all-too-human early gods.
Back before they were relegated to the status of myths, they were as alive and real to the people as say Christ might be to today’s faithful Christians. A primary difference was their misbehavior. They became involved in feuds, had affairs, became jealous, drank too much, etc. Other than the fact they were immortal and extremely powerful, they might be a neighbor… or live even closer to home. (Grin)
If they liked you, they could be your best buddy… make you healthy, wealthy and wise. But if they disliked you, watch out! They were like the little girl who had a little curl right in the middle of her forehead. “When she was good, she was very, very good, but when she was bad, she was horrid.” ( From a poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)
So it isn’t surprising that the ancient folks of the Mediterranean spent a great deal of energy and money trying to stay on the good side of their gods. Some of the world’s greatest art was created in their honor and whole herds of castrated animals were sacrificed and cooked to keep them smiling. Interestingly, the smoke from the cooking meat seemed to satisfy the gods. Mere mortals consumed the flesh. As the old saying goes, “Man is nothing, if not practical.”
The Romans, who lacked creativity, obtained their gods wholesale from the Greeks, only changing their names to sound more Latin. Zeus with his fiery lightning bolt became Jupiter, his wife/sister Hera, became Juno, and his daughter Athena, who sprang fully armed from his head and gave him a headache, became Minerva. And of course there was a whole pantheon of other gods.
Each of these gods had a role to play. If you wanted to kick someone’s tail, Jupiter was your ‘man.’ Juno could help you through a difficult childbirth. If you needed more wisdom, and who among us doesn’t, Minerva was there for you. There was no one stop shopping like today’s church goers enjoy.
The gods did gain more power as they aged, however. They took on the roles, and sometimes personalities, of the earlier gods they replaced. Juno, for example, was responsible for both “loosening a bride’s girdle” and protecting the money of the Roman Empire. In her latter role she was the patron Goddess of the Royal Mint.
Mt. Vesuvius provides the background for this photo of Jupiter’s Temple, which he shared with Juno and Minerva. The arch on the left was built to honor the Roman Emperor Tiberius (14-37 AD) (Photo by Peggy Mekemson)
This view of the right side of Jupiter’s Temple in Pompeii shows the arch of the Roman Emperor Nero, known for fiddling around while Rome burned. (Photo by Peggy Mekemson)
A final photo of Jupiter’s Temple, which I liked because of the massive, almost brooding feel, it gave to the columns.
Jupiter, Juno and Minerva were worshipped as a triad in both Pompeii and Rome. Possibly it saved time and money. There was also a temple to Mercury in Pompeii. His earlier persona had been that of the super fast Greek God Hermes who carried messages for the gods and had wings on his feet. He was also the god of getting rich, luck, trickery and thievery. Hmmm.
Apollo seems ready to take off and deliver a message in this photo of him overlooking his temple. Obviously, he is stripped down for action.
Dark clouds hover above Apollo’s Temple caught in the sunlight. (Photo by Peggy Mekemson.)
In this fun perspective by Peggy, Apollo seems to reach out and grasp one of the columns in his temple.
NEXT BLOG: I will spend one more day wandering the streets of Pompeii including a stop off at the Basilica, Pompeii’s seat of government.